Minggu, 27 Mei 2012

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World

Modern architecture has brought many amazing buildings to the world.
Quirky shapes, ambitious designs, new materials, and new different styles have come with the modern architecture into construction today. The purpose of the building is not always seen in its design. Futuristic museums and opera houses have become a usual thing. Today we list 10 most amazing buildings in the world.

Cubic Houses, Rotterdam, Netherlands

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Piet Blom had an idea of cubic houses in 1970s. Some of them were built in Helmond and when Rotterdam city asked him to build housing on top of a pedestrian bridge he chose this concept.

Dancing Building, Prague, Czech Republic

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
The ‘Dancing Building’ is a nickname given to Nationale-Nederlanden building that is located in Prague’s downtown. Designed by Croatian-Czech architect Vlado Milunić in collaboration with Canadian Frank Gehry the building was completed in 1996. The building was built instead of the one that was destroyed during Bombing of Prague in 1945.

The Ufo House, Sanjhih, Taiwan

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
The Ufo House in Sanjhih, Taiwan is actually an deserted resort project. It earned this nickname from Taiwanese for its strange futuristic design.

Kansas City Public Library, Missouri, United-States

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
As an incentive to visit library the design in the downtown of Kansas city was made in shape of books that according to people of Kansas city represent Kansas.
Update: I was told that it’s a parking garage not the actual library. And still it looks awesome, isn’t? What can I say? A suitable building for storing books.

Ferdinand Cheval Palace a.k.a Ideal Palace, France

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Ferdinand Cheval Palace was built by a postman in Hauterives, France, who intended to use it as his own tomb but haven’t obtained a license for that. His Ideal Palace is now known around the world.

Forest Spiral Hundertwasser Building, Darmstadt, Germany

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Forest Spiral Hundertwasser was built in 2000. Designed by Austrian architect and painter, Friedensreich Hundertwasser the building has 105 apartments and features colorful and organic design.

Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Built by Nervion River Guggenheim Museum of modern and contemporary art was designed by Canadian-American architect Frank Gehry. The building’s silhouette resembles the ship while the design was random, which helped it, according, to architect catch the light.

Bahá’í House of Worship a.k.a Lotus Temple, Delhi, India

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Bahá’í House of Worship mostly known as Lotus Temple was constructed in 1986 and is a Mother Temple of the Indian subcontinent. It is open for people of all religions.

Ripley’s Building, Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Known for the collection of odd and unbelievable things and artifacts Ripley’s Believe It or Not! franchise just had to have this kind of building.

The Crooked House, Sopot, Poland

10 Most Amazing Buildings In The World
Started and finished in 2003 The Crooked House was design was based on Polish artist and child books illustrator, Jan Marcin Szancer’s and Per Dahlberg’s, Swedish painter pictures and paintings.

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Jumat, 25 Mei 2012

Violence in society

Politic in Indonesia changed since 1999 which turn into democratic system. The fall down of Soeharto from president make political system different. A lot of violence happens, then political condition chaos. In view of extensive democratization and decentralization reforms, Indonesia is still experiencing high levels of violence.

Recently case in Papua, the government does not give much attention to Papua, so Papua want to be an independent. In here, government should look after Papua from Indonesia from NKRI. Papua give big contribution for Indonesia and natural resources. On the other hand, like in Aceh, almost the same with in Papua. Aceh want to be an independent but finally Yusuf Kalla be a negotiator and Aceh still be NKRI. Violence is a manipulation tool as one of propaganda in politics. Violence effect to our society moral, it constructs people morale. Society is provided with an objective and firm foundation. Civil society plays an important role in our society, because society part of democracy system, if the social is not good, political system will be not good too. The mobilization of civilians into paramilitary groups draws on extensive social forces and a tradition of creating , mobilizing, and incorporating crime as part of politics.

The provincial distribution of group violence in Indonesia has two notable features. First, in terms of deaths, as is well known, North Maluku, Maluku, DKI Jakarta, West and Central Kalimantan have been the worst provinces, but it is less well known that these are not the provinces with the highest number of incidents. Second, Java also has the largest number of incidents falling in the “Others” category.

Youth clashes constitute the single most important trigger of group violence. Young people in all parts of the world participate in large numbers in riots and various other forms of group violence. In Indonesia, however, the nature of such clashes is very different. Policy interventions that could somehow channel the energy of the youth in a positive direction are worthy of serious consideration.

In addition, violence is example of how bad our political system. Sometimes violence for propaganda to make bad democracy. To make a good political system, we have to clean our government first. We have to stop violence in our society so we can make a good democracy politics. For an adequate understanding of group violence in Indonesia, attention should be paid not simply to the national level factors, such as the changing fortunes of the New Order and the changing political dynamics at the national level, but also to local-level factors.

In conclusion, to prevent violence in our society, the government should take control in society. People should support government in a good way then give appreciation with choose the right President.

by Ganis Wicaksono
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Dynamic Politics in Indonesia

Politic is an interaction between government and people. Political decisions become authoritative policy for a group. Process in political system is about decision making. Indonesia has been undergoing four systems of politics. First is liberal democracy, guided democracy or old order, new order period, and reformation period. Liberal democracy was in 1945 – 1959, liberal democracy used presidential cabinet and in 1950, United of Republic Indonesia or RIS had dismissed and Indonesia went back into Republic of Indonesia. In RIS, the highest power was a prime minister. Meanwhile, political situation in old order had three main political forces that came from Soekarno, the army, and PKI. Afterwards, Soeharto got mandated from Soekarno to stabilize the security because unstabled the national security at that time. Then we now “Supersemar”, it’s stand for, “surat perintah 11 Maret 1966.” New order, focused on economic issues, but in one hand, this regime tried to make political stabilization and security. In here, political parties and mass media controlled by government, so government monitored their space. After 32 years as a president, Soeharto down from his position. There are two types intuitional system which applied by Soeharto. Firstly, president as the main power in this country and secondly, president have prerogative rights to pick-up or to stop ministers. Then reformation era, B.J. Habibie replaced Soeharto as a president, but B.J. Habibie only for a year became president.

Reformation happens because of these factorcs; simply activists’ dislike of the new populist powerholders, then there was a genuine concern about the standing of independent, supposedly ‘neutral’ institutions, last is decisive point the led to renewed middle class mobilization was moral outrage at corruption scandals. Indonesia governance based on constitution system and this system give assertiveness on controlling governance. President is fully responsible on government. The Constitution is a medium for the creation of democratic life for all citizens. In other words, countries that choose democracy as a choice, then the democratic constitution is a rule that can guarantee true democracy in the country, hence the birth of power or democratic governance.

Hence, Indonesia political system is democracy where democracy is a freedom. Now people free to give appreciations to government. Actually, political system in Indonesia is democracy since independent day, but in different way of democracy. Democracy is fit with Indonesia because it is appropriate with pancasila. Political culture is a habit in politics and Indonesia is a country that adopts democracy. For example the election which is the political culture in Indonesia. Indonesia has a head of state is the president, but the highest power in the hands of the people and returned again to the people. Indonesia has conducted election 10 times, the first elections in 1945 and under Suharto era in 1955,1971,1977,1982,1987,1992,1997 then in 1999 under Habibie, afterwards in 2004 Gus Dur replaced by Megawati whose chose by MPR and in 2009 where first time election done by Indonesian citizenship and Soesilo Bambang Yudhoyono won that election.

There are few types of political culture in Indonesia; rigid hierarchy, the tendency patronage, neo-patrimonialistik tendency and modern bureaucracy. Political culture is shaped and developed by political actors and what which will be determined by political actors as the main characteristics their political culture to some extent, influenced by the education system. So the relationship between political culture and education is indirect. This means that education is not in the final established political actors. Education provides the basics to each potential political actors, if the basics are good and sturdy, large likelihood (probability) would be born good political actors. However, if the fundamentals of education are bad and fragile, then the possibility would be born bad and fragile too. We can see now, that a lot of corruptors, it is because of bad political culture.

Afterwards, Gus Dur made a change when he became president. In the past, Chinese culture had banned from Indonesia, but Gus Dur permit again Chinese culture. He brought change in Indonesia then he known as the father of Indonesia pluralistic. Pluralism itself is a system that recognizes more than one ultimate principle. For instance, prohibition against Confucianism, which began in 1967, revoked in 2000, during the New Order government from 1965 to 1998.

Directed election in 2004, made a new change. Besides of direct election to choose president, it also direct election for governor, mayor city and other leaders. Election is the central instrument of liberal democracy. There are pro and cons in politics which categorize as coalition and opposition. Coalition itself is a partnership where an opposition is a partnership which cons with government.

The media process a natural vitality in consolidated democracies, where freedom of expression is legally protected. In nearly all established democracies, television has become the pre-eminent mass medium. Besides TV, the second mass medium is newspapers. The print media remain important in politics, not least because they are free of the tight regulation still applied to national broadcasters. Propaganda was an important feature of communication in totalitarian regimes, with their aim of transforming political culture. It has also been important to democracies in times of war, both externally to mislead the enemy and internally to protect domestic morale. Presidential system is positioning president and vice president as the main power. In here, as the system which is not an integral and its consequence its position chosen in one package.

Besides domestic politics, foreign politics between other countries should be good too. We make bilateral relationship between countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia, USA and so on. This bilateral relationship should be well maintained, if not will be chaos, such as war. So, we have to make diplomacy as a representative from country itself.

To conclude that Indonesia has been experiencing a lot of political system and I think the best system for Indonesia is democracy. Democracy itself is suitable for Indonesia because based on Pancasila ideology. However, since reformation era, now Indonesia still in transition because sometimes still influence from new order era. To form a good democracy, we need all together to raise our awareness and we should not skeptical about Indonesia. Indonesia still need time to build a clean democracy and to make good government also to make stabilization.

by Ganis Wicaksono
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Senin, 14 Mei 2012

Peneliti: Evolusi Manusia Belum Selesai

Evolusi terjadi sebagai reaksi menanggapi dorongan dari lingkungan luar yang menekan setiap individu tanpa terkecuali, untuk bertahan hidup. Oleh karena itu, sejumlah ilmuwan meyakini hingga kini manusia masih terus berevolusi. Studi mengenai kelanjutan evolusi manusia ini diterbitkan dalam jurnal Proceedings of the National Academy of Science secara online, Senin (30/4).

Para ilmuwan meneliti data 6.000 penduduk Finlandia yang lahir antara tahun 1760 hingga 1849. Mereka menganalisis dan membandingkan informasi kelahiran, kematian, pernikahan, dan status ekonomi orang-orang tersebut. Data tersebut dapat mudah diperoleh karena subjek genealogi (penyelidikan dalam genetika terhadap keturunan nenek moyang dari individu) sangat populer di Finlandia.

"Mempelajari evolusi butuh sampel data perseorangan yang besar, yang mencakup seluruh kehidupannya," ungkap salah satu peneliti dari University of Sheffield, Inggris, Virpi Lummaa.

Dari penelitian tersebut ilmuwan menyelidiki hubungan antara pertanian dengan empat aspek penting kehidupan masyarakat: kemampuan bertahan hidup hingga mencapai kedewasaan, kemampuan menemukan pasangan hidup, perkawinan, dan kesuburan masing-masing pasangan. "Kami menemukan fakta bahwa spesies kita masih terus berevolusi, selayaknya semua spesies lain di Bumi yang ada di dalam liar," lanjut Lummaa.

Menariknya adalah ditemukan tingkat kemampuan bertahan hidup (survival) dan tingkat kesuburan (fertility) berada pada tingkat yang sama antara orang yang sejahtera dan orang yang tergolong miskin.

Alexandre Courtiol, peneliti yang ialah ahli biologi evolusioner Institute for Advance Study di Berlin, menambahkan, "Banyak yang mengira faktor kesejahteraan bagaimana pun mungkin bisa 'melindungi' kita dari ancaman lingkungan. Tapi terbukti orang yang yang kaya dan miskin sama-sama memiliki kesempatan bertahan hidup," ujarnya.
(Gloria Samantha. Sumber: Live Science)

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NASA Capai Kemajuan Besar Dalam Studi Exoplanet

Keberhasilan teleskop antariksa Spitzer milik NASA untuk mendeteksi cahaya inframerah dari planet di luar tata surya kita merupakan kemajuan besar dalam pencarian kehidupan di dunia lain.

Planet yang diteliti itu tidak dapat dihuni, tetapi para ilmuwan berharap bahwa teknik pengukuran inframerah yang dibuat lebih canggih di masa depan akan dapat membedakan molekul organik, yang merupakan tanda-tanda adanya potensi kehidupan.

Planet-planet jauh yang mengorbit bintang-bintang di luar tata surya kita dikenal sebagai exoplanet. Sebuah studi badan antariksa Amerika yang dipublikasikan minggu ini melaporkan tentang planet exoplanet 55 Cancri e, yang disebut 'Bumi Super' berjarak sekitar 41 tahun cahaya dari dunia kita, yang termasuk relatif dekat secara kosmik.

Planet itu memiliki massa sekitar delapan kali massa Bumi dan berukuran dua kali besar Bumi. Planet itu mengorbit bintang 55 Cancri setiap 18 jam, sedemikian sehingga sisinya yang sama  terus menerus menghadap ke mataharinya. Akibatnya, suhu permukaan planet itu mencapai lebih dari 1.700 derajat Celcius, lebih dari cukup untuk mengubah besi dan logam lain menjadi cair.

Data yang dikumpulkan oleh teleskop Spitzer menunjukkan bahwa 55 Cancri e memiliki inti batu, dikelilingi oleh lapisan air dalam keadaan 'superkritis', keduanya dalam bentuk cair dan gas sekaligus.

Exoplanet pertama ditemukan hanya beberapa tahun sebelum peluncuran teleskop Spitzer pada tahun 2003, dan misi tersebut telah direncanakan selama beberapa dekade sebelum itu.

Para ilmuwan NASA mengatakan mereka gembira dengan keberhasilan yang dicapai sejauh ini, dan mereka mengharapkan kemajuan-kemajuan lebih lanjut dalam studi mengenai kemungkinan adanya kehidupan di luar Bumi dalam peluncuran wahana utama berikutnya untuk mempelajari alam semesta. Menurut rencana badan antariksa NASA akan meluncurkan Teleskop Antariksa James Webb, pada tahun 2018 .

Studi NASA itu diterbitkan dalam jurnal astrofisika, The Astrophysical Journal.