Jumat, 25 Mei 2012

Dynamic Politics in Indonesia

Politic is an interaction between government and people. Political decisions become authoritative policy for a group. Process in political system is about decision making. Indonesia has been undergoing four systems of politics. First is liberal democracy, guided democracy or old order, new order period, and reformation period. Liberal democracy was in 1945 – 1959, liberal democracy used presidential cabinet and in 1950, United of Republic Indonesia or RIS had dismissed and Indonesia went back into Republic of Indonesia. In RIS, the highest power was a prime minister. Meanwhile, political situation in old order had three main political forces that came from Soekarno, the army, and PKI. Afterwards, Soeharto got mandated from Soekarno to stabilize the security because unstabled the national security at that time. Then we now “Supersemar”, it’s stand for, “surat perintah 11 Maret 1966.” New order, focused on economic issues, but in one hand, this regime tried to make political stabilization and security. In here, political parties and mass media controlled by government, so government monitored their space. After 32 years as a president, Soeharto down from his position. There are two types intuitional system which applied by Soeharto. Firstly, president as the main power in this country and secondly, president have prerogative rights to pick-up or to stop ministers. Then reformation era, B.J. Habibie replaced Soeharto as a president, but B.J. Habibie only for a year became president.

Reformation happens because of these factorcs; simply activists’ dislike of the new populist powerholders, then there was a genuine concern about the standing of independent, supposedly ‘neutral’ institutions, last is decisive point the led to renewed middle class mobilization was moral outrage at corruption scandals. Indonesia governance based on constitution system and this system give assertiveness on controlling governance. President is fully responsible on government. The Constitution is a medium for the creation of democratic life for all citizens. In other words, countries that choose democracy as a choice, then the democratic constitution is a rule that can guarantee true democracy in the country, hence the birth of power or democratic governance.

Hence, Indonesia political system is democracy where democracy is a freedom. Now people free to give appreciations to government. Actually, political system in Indonesia is democracy since independent day, but in different way of democracy. Democracy is fit with Indonesia because it is appropriate with pancasila. Political culture is a habit in politics and Indonesia is a country that adopts democracy. For example the election which is the political culture in Indonesia. Indonesia has a head of state is the president, but the highest power in the hands of the people and returned again to the people. Indonesia has conducted election 10 times, the first elections in 1945 and under Suharto era in 1955,1971,1977,1982,1987,1992,1997 then in 1999 under Habibie, afterwards in 2004 Gus Dur replaced by Megawati whose chose by MPR and in 2009 where first time election done by Indonesian citizenship and Soesilo Bambang Yudhoyono won that election.

There are few types of political culture in Indonesia; rigid hierarchy, the tendency patronage, neo-patrimonialistik tendency and modern bureaucracy. Political culture is shaped and developed by political actors and what which will be determined by political actors as the main characteristics their political culture to some extent, influenced by the education system. So the relationship between political culture and education is indirect. This means that education is not in the final established political actors. Education provides the basics to each potential political actors, if the basics are good and sturdy, large likelihood (probability) would be born good political actors. However, if the fundamentals of education are bad and fragile, then the possibility would be born bad and fragile too. We can see now, that a lot of corruptors, it is because of bad political culture.

Afterwards, Gus Dur made a change when he became president. In the past, Chinese culture had banned from Indonesia, but Gus Dur permit again Chinese culture. He brought change in Indonesia then he known as the father of Indonesia pluralistic. Pluralism itself is a system that recognizes more than one ultimate principle. For instance, prohibition against Confucianism, which began in 1967, revoked in 2000, during the New Order government from 1965 to 1998.

Directed election in 2004, made a new change. Besides of direct election to choose president, it also direct election for governor, mayor city and other leaders. Election is the central instrument of liberal democracy. There are pro and cons in politics which categorize as coalition and opposition. Coalition itself is a partnership where an opposition is a partnership which cons with government.

The media process a natural vitality in consolidated democracies, where freedom of expression is legally protected. In nearly all established democracies, television has become the pre-eminent mass medium. Besides TV, the second mass medium is newspapers. The print media remain important in politics, not least because they are free of the tight regulation still applied to national broadcasters. Propaganda was an important feature of communication in totalitarian regimes, with their aim of transforming political culture. It has also been important to democracies in times of war, both externally to mislead the enemy and internally to protect domestic morale. Presidential system is positioning president and vice president as the main power. In here, as the system which is not an integral and its consequence its position chosen in one package.

Besides domestic politics, foreign politics between other countries should be good too. We make bilateral relationship between countries, such as Singapore, Malaysia, USA and so on. This bilateral relationship should be well maintained, if not will be chaos, such as war. So, we have to make diplomacy as a representative from country itself.

To conclude that Indonesia has been experiencing a lot of political system and I think the best system for Indonesia is democracy. Democracy itself is suitable for Indonesia because based on Pancasila ideology. However, since reformation era, now Indonesia still in transition because sometimes still influence from new order era. To form a good democracy, we need all together to raise our awareness and we should not skeptical about Indonesia. Indonesia still need time to build a clean democracy and to make good government also to make stabilization.

by Ganis Wicaksono

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